Panic disorder and agoraphobia are both subsets of anxiety disorders. As a result, they share many similarities. These two conditions are often likely to co-exist as well. This means that a person can have both panic disorder and agoraphobia, making it a complicated condition. Thus, understanding the similarities and differences between the two conditions is crucial for effective diagnosis, treatment, and support.

Understanding Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia

Panic Disorder

Panic disorder is a subtype of anxiety disorder characterised by recurrent, unexpected panic attacks. Panic attacks are periods of intense fear and discomfort causing physical symptoms like shortness of breath, racing heartbeat, chills, headaches, trembling, chest pain, etc. Although everyone is likely to experience anxiety sometimes, people with panic disorders continue to experience symptoms of stress, anxiety, and panic regularly for no apparent reason, making the condition even more complex. Some symptoms of panic disorder include:

  1. Sudden and consistent panic attacks characterised by anxiety and fear
  2. Avoiding places or situations where a panic attack has occurred in the past
  3. Constant worry or fear about the occurrence of another panic attack.

It is important to note that panic attacks can occur without panic disorder and not everyone who has a panic attack is likely to develop a panic disorder


Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder where an individual finds it difficult to leave places that they consider to be safe. They fear that they will be unable to find help or escape from the situation in case they have a panic attack. Due to this fear, people with Agoraphobia are likely to avoid public places, transport, crowded places, schools, etc. In extreme cases, they may find it difficult to leave their houses.

The Link Between Agoraphobia and Panic Disorder

Agoraphobia and panic disorder are often connected and frequently happen at the same time. Agoraphobia can actually develop because of panic disorder. Suppose someone has one or more panic attacks in a particular situation, like being on a train or in a crowded place. In that case, they might begin to stay away from that situation because they’re scared of having another panic attack. 

Over time, people might only go to places where they feel safe and skip the ones that make them uneasy. This avoidance of situations is a hallmark of agoraphobia. Eventually, it becomes a cycle: panic attacks make them scared of certain situations, so they avoid those. But avoiding those situations makes the fear and worry even stronger, making both panic disorder and agoraphobia more intense.

Can Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia Exist Independently?

Yes, panic disorder and agoraphobia can exist independently of each other. For example- A person might experience panic attacks in multiple situations, like at a mall or in the office, but they continue to work and go to malls. Here, panic disorder exists without agoraphobia. 

Some people might just feel uneasy in specific situations, like large crowds, without experiencing a panic attack. Thus, they may avoid concerts, gatherings, etc. Here, agoraphobia exists without panic disorder.


Agoraphobia and Panic Disorder are both subsets of anxiety disorders that frequently appear together. However, they can appear independently as well. Dealing with these conditions can be difficult and complex, but it is important to remember that both conditions are treatable with a combination of therapy, medications, and self-care activities. If you find yourself or any loved one suffering from these, it is advisable to consult a trained mental health professional at the earliest.


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Dhruva Koranne

Dhruva Koranne has completed his Masters in Applied Psychology from Tata Institute of Social Sciences, BALM. He has been practicing as a counsellor since 2020 and works to create a safe space for clients where they can open up. In addition to this, Dhruva loves researching and studying about upcoming theories in the field of Psychology. Connect with him on Linkedin